8 Best Lab Coats for Women | Students, Nurses, and Doctors

Lab coats are essential for nursing and medical students, doctors, nurse practitioners, and other specialists such as electronic technicians, microbiologists, pharmacists, and veterinarians. These garments allow for the effective and efficient performance of duties without interrupting workflow.

The ideal lab coats for women should provide a comfortable and versatile experience while also being highly protective, durable, and professional in appearance.

Numerous designs, materials, and sizes are available to suit different needs. However, this collection focuses explicitly on the best lab coats for women in healthcare, chemical facility, clinics, medical laboratories, radiological centers, and biohazardous settings.

Our reviews evaluate each lab coat’s quality, design, and functionality independently. Therefore, reading each review to find the lab coat that best fits your professional needs and setting would be most beneficial.

We share products we consider valuable to our audience. As a result, we may receive a commission on purchases made through affiliate links. Learn more.

1. Cherokee Women 36-inch Lab Coat

Cherokee Women 36-inch Lab Coat

The Cherokee Women 36″ Lab Coat is a sophisticated and stylish coat with a comfortable polyester and cotton blend. This lab coat is made to be easily cleaned through machine washing, featuring a cotton twill finish and soil release closure for added convenience. The princess seams, mock sleeve cut-off, and back belt provide a natural and flattering fit for all body types.

With two front-angled patch pockets, this lab coat ensures quick access to all your essential items. This feature makes it an excellent choice for those who frequently carry equipment, as it allows them to free up their hands for other tasks.

Moreover, the Cherokee Women Lab Coat is designed with a classic modern fit with a notched collar. It looks amazing with most outfits, making it a versatile addition to your wardrobe. This lab coat is available in various sizes ranging from X-Small to 3X-Large, ensuring that everyone can find a perfect fit.

Cherokee offers numerous designs for those requiring high-quality lab coats that cater to varying needs. So, if you’re looking for a sleek and stylish lab coat that is comfortable and practical, the Cherokee Women 36″ Lab Coat is the perfect choice.

Cherokee Women Lab Coat Features:

  • A 36″ design with a polyester/cotton mix for comfort
  • Machine washable with cotton twill finish and soil release closure
  • Princess seams, mock sleeve cut-off, and back belt for natural fit
  • Two front-angled patch pockets for quick access
  • Classic modern fit with notched collar
  • Available in various sizes from X-Small to 3X-Large

2. Grey’s Anatomy 32″ Fitted Lab Coat

Grey's Anatomy 32" Fitted Lab Coat

The Grey’s Anatomy 32″ Fitted Lab Coat is an essential addition to the medical wardrobe of female doctors, nurse practitioners, and medical students who appreciate the quality and style that the Grey’s Anatomy clothing line provides.

This lab coat boasts a clean, crisp all-white appearance, with the exception of the label, that extends to the seams and buttons, making for a stylish and professional look. It also features two generously sized front pockets that provide ample storage space for medical tools and accessories.

Additionally, a back vent is included to enhance airflow, ensuring you stay cool and comfortable during even the busiest days.

Crafted from a durable polyester blend, this lab coat is designed to resist wrinkles and moisture, making it easy to maintain and keep looking its best. The multi-needle stylizing and peached twill finish give it a sleek and professional appearance and ensure that it can withstand the rigors of daily use.

Whether you are a doctor, nurse practitioner, medical student, or veterinarian, the Grey’s Anatomy fitted lab coat is an excellent investment in your professional wardrobe. In addition to this lab coat, the Grey’s Anatomy brand offers a wide range of popular medical gear, including scrubs, lab coats, and shoes.

With this variety of medical attire and accessories, it’s easy to find the perfect complement to your Grey’s Anatomy lab coat.

Grey’s Anatomy Lab Coat Features:

  • 32″ Fitted Lab Coat with a crisp white all-white design (minus the label)
  • Two spacious front pockets allow for an abundance of storage space
  • A back vent provides extra airflow to keep you cool during busy days
  • The lab coat comprises a polyester blend with wrinkle-resistant, moisture-wicking, and machine-wash-friendly materials
  • It has multi-needle stylizing and a peached twill finish provide a professional appearance and excellent durability

3. Cherokee Profesional 36-Inch Lab Coat

Cherokee Profesional 36-Inch Lab Coat

The Cherokee Professional 36-Inch Lab Coat exudes a chic and sophisticated vibe, boasting a sleek and minimalistic design. This pristine lab coat comes in a beautiful all-white hue, complete with princess seams, a button-end closure, and two generously sized double-patch pockets for added convenience.

The front yokes are stylishly crafted, featuring a notched collar and a center-back vent that ensures maximum comfort and an impeccable fit.

Furthermore, this lab coat comprises a blend of polyester and cotton, making it a comfort to wear. The polyester fabric ensures durability and minimizes wrinkles, while the lightweight cotton material offers unparalleled comfort. These textiles combine to provide an exceptional balance of warmth and support.

The Cherokee Professional 36″ Women Lab Coat is the perfect choice for doctors, laboratory technicians, nurse practitioners, and medical students seeking a long jacket with a formal design. Its elegant and professional appearance makes it an ideal fit for a wide range of work and college settings. With this lab coat, you’ll maintain a sharp and athletic look wherever you go.

Cherokee Professional Lab Coat Features:

  • A long, classy coat that provides a stylish yet professional aesthetic
  • It comes in an all-white finish with princess seams, and a button-end closure
  • Two roomy double-patch pockets provide sufficient storage for basic items
  • A stylish front yokes with a notched collar and a center-back vent offer extra comfort and a great fit
  • Made of a polyester/cotton blend for easy cleaning
  • It comprises polyester and cotton materials to offer warmth, support, and durability

4. WonderWink Women’s Four-Stretch Lab Coat

WonderWink Women's Four-Stretch Lab Coat

The WonderWink Four-Stretch Lab Coat is popular among science and medical care professionals. It’s easy to see why – this lab coat boasts a composition of 100% polyester, which ensures optimal performance and resistance to wrinkles. What’s more, the incorporation of a 4-stretch fabric design ensures that the wearer is comfortable and free to move around with ease.

Like many other lab coats on this list, the WonderWink Four-Stretch Lab Coat is machine washable, making it incredibly easy to clean and maintain. Design-wise, this lab coat is a true standout, featuring beautiful prince seaming and a faux belt that provides a figure-flattering appearance.

The three-button closure is adjustable, ensuring the user can find the perfect level of comfort and style when wearing this lab coat.

For those who need to carry around essential items, there is a handy pocket with an ID bungee, as well as a mesh coin pocket. WonderWink’s stretch lab coat is ideal for doctors, nurse practitioners, medical students, veterinarians, and scientists who want a lab coat that is aesthetically pleasing and incredibly functional.

With four stylish colors – white, black, graphite, and royal blue – this lab coat perfectly matches WonderWink’s numerous scrub pants.

WonderWink Four-Stretch Lab Coat Features:

  • It is made of 100% polyester for optimal performance and wrinkle resistance
  • The 4-stretch fabric design ensures optimal comfort while walking around
  • It’s machine washable for fast and efficient cleaning
  • Beautiful prince seaming and a faux belt provide a figure-flattering appearance
  • A three-button closure allows for easy adjustment and comfort
  • It features a pocket with an id bungee and a mesh coin pocket

5. Dickies Scrubs Gen Flex Junior Fit Lab Coat

Dickies Scrubs Gen Flex Junior Fit Lab Coat

The Dickies Women’s Gen Flex Junior Fit Lab Coat is a highly sought-after brand within the healthcare industry. Boasting an extensive range of comfortable workwear options, Dickies caters to the needs of laboratory technicians, office workers, doctors, nurse practitioners, and medical students.

Crafted from a blend of cotton, polyester, and spandex materials, this lab coat is designed to provide a functional fit while ensuring a long-lasting lifespan. Princess seams, multi-needle topstitching, and non-functional utility snap details enhance its elegant appearance.

Additionally, two large patch pockets on the coat ensure ample storage for essential items, while the back belt guarantees a proper fit.

Notably, the lab coat is machine washable, making it a convenient and efficient option for sterilization purposes. Furthermore, it is available in five distinct color variations: black, white, navy, and light. This allows healthcare workers, scientists, and veterinarians to choose a style that best suits their work needs and personal preferences.

Overall, the Dickies Women’s Gen Flex Junior Fit Lab Coat is a reliable and stylish choice for those in the healthcare industry, providing both comfort and practicality in equal measure.

Dickies Gen Flex Junior Fit Lab Coat Features:

  • This lab coat comprises cotton, polyester, and spandex materials
  • It features princess seams, multi-needle topstitching, and non-functional utility snap details
  • Two large patch pockets keep items safe, and a back belt ensures a proper fit
  • The lab coat is machine washable for fast and efficient sterilization
  • It’s available in five color variations: black, white, navy, pewter, and light pewter

6. Dickies EDS Professional Lab Coat

Dickies EDS Professional Lab Coat

The Dickies EDS Professional Lab Coat is a top-of-the-line garment that accommodates the needs of professionals who require a high degree of functionality from their lab coats. With four conveniently placed patch pockets, this lab coat allows for the storage of small tools and equipment, ensuring that everything is easily accessible whenever they’re needed.

The pockets include a chest pocket, two front-angled pockets, and a cell phone pocket, all of which maximize the coat’s usefulness.

In terms of design, the lab coat features a notched collar and lapel, with a front button-down design and a back belt finish. The back princess seams and a long 37″ frame provide optimal protection, while the elegant yet functional appearance of the coat ensures that it is both practical and comfortable to wear.

Crafted from a blend of cotton and polyester, the Dickies EDS professional lab coat is remarkably sturdy and can be easily sanitized in a washing machine. This feature makes it ideal for demanding work environments where hygiene is a top priority.

Overall, the Dickies EDS Professional Lab Coat offers professionals all-day comfort and performance, along with a visually appealing design that is practical and functional.

Dickies EDS Professional Lab Coat Features:

  • Four patch pockets allow you to store small tools and equipment
  • It includes a chest pocket, two front-angled pockets, and a cell phone pocket
  • The design incorporates a notched collar and lapel with a front button-down design and back belt finish
  • Back princess seams and a long 37″ frame provide excellent protection
  • The cotton/polyester blend allows for efficient durability and easy cleaning

7. Dickies Scrubs Junior Fit 3/4 Sleeve Lab Coat

Dickies Scrubs Junior Fit 3/4 Sleeve Lab Coat

The Dickies Junior Fit 3/4 Sleeve Lab Coat is an exceptional choice for healthcare professionals who prefer a shorter sleeve design. With sleeves measuring 3/4 arm’s length and side vents that promote a relaxed and comfortable fit, this lab coat is perfect for doctors, nurse practitioners, medical students, and veterinarians.

Made from a blend of cotton and polyester, it can be easily machine-washed for efficient sanitization.

This short-sleeve lab coat has several features that make it functional and fashionable. Four patch pockets offer ample space to store small essentials such as writing supplies, bandage scissors, trauma shears, glasses, a penlight, and other equipment. Additionally, a D-ring is provided for clipping on an ID or other relevant items.

The notched collar with a lapel, back darts, and center back belt give this lab coat an aesthetically pleasing design. Overall, this lab coat is an excellent option for healthcare providers, researchers, and scientists who do not require a full-length design. It provides plenty of pocket space, comfortable materials, and a beautiful layout.

Dickies Junior Fit Lab Coat Features:

  • Dickies Junior Fit 3/4 Sleeve Lab Coat is great for healthcare providers who want a short-sleeve design.
  • The sleeves measure 3/4 arm’s length and feature side vents for a relaxed and comfortable fit.
  • Comprised of cotton/polyester fabric, this short-sleeve coat lab is machine wash-friendly for efficient sanitization.
  • Four patch pockets offer utility-friendly organization for small essentials.
  • There’s a D-ring for clipping on an ID or other relevant items.
  • The lab coat features a notched collar with a lapel, back darts, and a center back belt for an aesthetically pleasing design.
  • It’s an attractive option for healthcare providers, researchers, and scientists that don’t require a full-length design.

8. Adar Universal 32″ Lab Coat

Adar Universal 32" Lab Coat

The Adar Universal 32″ Lab Coat is high-quality clothing with an elegant design, perfect for various healthcare environments. With its tailored lapel collar, long set-in sleeves featuring buttoned cuffs, and back midriff with multiple buttons, this lab coat exudes a unique and sophisticated aesthetic that will impress.

The coat is secured with a three-button closure, which ensures optimal movement and flexibility for the wearer. Additionally, a back slit provides excellent airflow and easy mobility when navigating the workplace. The lab coat also features two multi-layered pockets, which provide ample space for storing essentials while on the job.

Adar’s Universal 32″ Lab Coat is a must-have for fashion-forward doctors, nurse practitioners, and medical students. It incorporates numerous design features that deliver a stunning appearance at work, and it is available in white and black color variations to accommodate different clothing and personal preferences.

Adar Universal Lab Coat Features:

  • It has a tailored lapel collar and long set-in sleeves with buttoned cuffs
  • The back midriff has multiple buttons to establish a unique aesthetic
  • A secured three-button closure provides optimal movement and flexibility
  • It has a back slit for excellent airflow and easy mobility
  • Two multi-layered pockets provide additional space for essentials
  • Available in white or black variations to accommodate different preferences

How to Choose a High-Quality Lab Coat

When selecting a lab coat, there are many factors to consider, including the material, design, size, organization, and storage capacity. In addition, assessing your vocation and the workplace hazards you’ll encounter is essential to ensure maximum safety and efficiency. The following section will provide a detailed explanation of each aspect to help you make an informed decision.

Features to Consider When Buying a Lab Coat:

  • Eco-friendly materials
  • A lightweight construction
  • Moisture-wicking properties
  • Antimicrobial fabrics
  • Enhanced odor resistance
  • Anti-wrinkle design
  • A quick-drying composition

Material/Fabric Composition

Lab coats are essential protective gear in various work environments, including medical, scientific, and industrial settings. When selecting the right lab coat materials, it’s crucial to consider each fabric’s unique advantages and qualities. Some of the most commonly used materials include cotton, modacrylic, nylon, polyester, rayon, and fabric blends.

Polyester fabrics are particularly popular due to their high-quality properties, such as being less prone to wrinkles and shrinking. Additionally, they maintain their color well, making them an ideal choice for lab coats that need to look professional and presentable for extended periods.

However, fabric blends are also worth considering as they offer a lightweight construction with unique features like stretchy fabrics, additional antimicrobial protection, and environmental hazard resistance.

For instance, if you work in an environment where fire hazards are a concern, a lab coat made from a material blend that provides extra fire protection would be an excellent option to consider. By selecting the appropriate lab coat fabric for your vocation, you’ll ensure you have the highest level of protection and comfort.

So, take your time and choose carefully to ensure that your lab coat is best suited to your professional environment.

Lab Coats Can Protect Against These Hazards:

  • Allergen
  • Biological
  • Chemical/Toxic
  • Electrical
  • Physical
  • Radioactive

When selecting a lab coat, it’s essential to consider the material’s machine washability, moisture-wicking properties, and wrinkle resistance. These factors can significantly impact the coat’s suitability for your needs.

Understanding whether your lab coat can be machine washed or requires dry cleaning ensures you maintain adequate protection against bacteria, cross-contamination, and other hazards that may affect you, your clothing, or those around you.

Failure to select appropriate fabrics may result in the accumulation of harmful bacteria and germs, which can pose a significant threat to one’s health. Despite the antibacterial fabrics in many lab coats, they are not impervious to continuous exposure to harmful bacteria and germs.

Consequently, it’s crucial to prioritize regular washing and maintenance of your lab coat to ensure the utmost safety and cleanliness.


Regarding lab coats, the options for design and personalization are endless. From chic and fashionable styles to custom-made and embroidered designs, there is something for everyone. The choice of design and personalization is ultimately a matter of personal preference. Nonetheless, ensuring that your employer approves the design before investing in it is crucial.

Fortunately, there are online services that offer custom-tailored or embroidered lab coats. Additionally, some local tailors can assist in creating a lab coat that is perfectly tailored to fit your body type and personal style. Some websites provide a measurement guide to help you get accurate measurements if you opt for online services.

Alternatively, they may provide physical locations where you can get measured if you are uncomfortable doing it yourself. In any case, it is essential to obtain accurate measurements to ensure that you get the right-sized and shaped lab coat for your needs.

If you are looking for a less comprehensive design, numerous online sellers offer a wide selection of lab coats. These designs do not require any alterations, and designers can quickly implement them into existing lab coats. Here is a concise sizing and shape list to give you an idea of the various lab coat sizes and fits available.

Common Lab Coat Sizes and Fits:

  • Slim fit
  • Classic fit
  • Loose fit
  • Seam stretch
  • Multi stitch
  • Back tab
  • Collared
  • Button up
  • Snap closure
  • Zippered
  • Adjustable waist belt
  • Knee/ankle length options
  • Custom pocket sizes

Lab coats come in various styles and designs that surpass traditional limitations. However, lab coat sizes can vary dramatically depending on the brand. As a result, it’s essential to review each brand’s sizing chart to obtain their specific coat measurements.

Many brands also offer multiple colors like off-white, blue, or pink, but it’s crucial to consider your work environment and company policies when choosing a color. For example, white lab coats are typically used to identify chemicals, stains, and bacteria.

If you work in an environment where identifying germs or chemicals on your clothing is essential, consider using a white lab coat. However, if stains or bacteria aren’t a concern, another color may be more suitable.


When selecting a lab coat, choosing one that fits properly and allows for a comfortable range of motion is crucial. This is essential for ensuring effective and efficient work without feeling restricted or uncomfortable. If the lab coat is too tight, it can hinder proper movement and make maneuvering or handling equipment, chemicals, or tools difficult.

Tight clothing can also tear more easily, creating openings that expose the skin to harmful chemicals and bacteria. This can result in injury to the wearer or the possibility of cross-contamination.

On the other hand, a lab coat that is too loose can increase unnecessary hazardous risks. Loose clothing can get caught in machinery, creating risks around open flames, hazardous chemicals, and other dangerous elements. Therefore, choosing a lab coat with an appropriate fit is vital to ensure work safety and effectiveness.

Tips for Buying Appropriately Sized Lab Coats:

  • Read the reviews to see whether the coat fits properly or runs a different size.
  • Review the “fits as expected” section to determine the lab coat’s fit. Identify whether it runs larger or smaller than expected.
  • Get professionalism measured to see what coat size best suits you.
  • If there’s a physical store nearby, examine several lab coats for sizing to help you find an appropriate fit.

Ensuring safety and maintaining good health should be the foremost concern when selecting protective clothing. Opting for a well-fitted lab coat that provides ample protection while keeping you comfortable can significantly enhance your productivity, efficiency and safety at work.

Pocket Space/Organization

Lab coats are indispensable professional attire for individuals working in scientific or medical environments. They not only serve to enhance the wearer’s professional image but also protect against workplace hazards.

However, beyond their protective function, lab coats are essential in terms of facilitating efficient work practices by allowing for the storage of essential work tools and equipment.

When choosing the right lab coat, it is crucial to consider its number of pockets. Lab coats with an appropriate number of pockets ensure that you have all the tools you need at your fingertips, allowing you to work more efficiently. Additionally, the size of the pockets is also a crucial factor to consider.

Pockets should be large enough to comfortably store your tools without causing discomfort or interfering with your work.

Some lab coat designs offer large pockets that are suitable for carrying small tablets, which can be particularly useful for individuals who need to move between departments while carrying their equipment.

Having adequate pocket space saves you time, as you won’t have to rummage through bags or drawers to find your tools constantly, and it also allows you to remain hands-free for essential activities. So, when selecting a lab coat, choose one that offers ample pocket space for all your work needs.

Why Specialists Wear Lab Coats

Lab coats are indispensable for healthcare professionals, engineers, and scientists who operate in hazardous environments. These functional coats are crucial in maintaining a clean, healthy, and professional appearance while enabling specialists to identify one another quickly.

Beyond their aesthetic appeal, lab coats provide vital protection to their wearers. Lab coats significantly reduce the risk of cross-contamination, chemical burns, and the spread of harmful bacteria and diseases by creating a barrier between the skin and the various hazards and chemicals present in their surroundings.

Additionally, these coats safeguard the wearer’s attire and limit the potential for bacteria and chemicals to contaminate their clothes.

When combined with high-quality nursing footwear, lab coats offer their users a comprehensive and secure experience. Lab coats must provide adequate protection and be easily removable in emergencies. These emergencies may include fire, chemical spills, machinery, biological infections, and other hazards that can harm the user’s health.

Many specialists opt for white lab coats, as they enable quick identification and detection of bacteria, chemical hazards, or other dangers. This quick identification helps prevent the production of cross-contamination, infections, or injuries caused by hazardous chemicals or bacteria.

In summary, lab coats are an essential part of the uniform for any specialist operating in a hazardous environment, providing protection and a professional appearance.

Benefits of Wearing a Lab Coat:

  • Offers protection from hazardous chemicals
  • Protects clothing underneath the coat
  • Reduces potential cross-contamination
  • Provides a professional appearance

Lab coats are specially designed to offer a high level of protection for individuals who work in environments that pose potential hazards to their health and safety. The composition of lab coats can vary significantly depending on the specific environmental risks.

Some designs may offer fire resistance, while others provide chemical protection or bacteria resistance. Additionally, companies may adjust the thickness, fabrics, and fit of lab coats to ensure adequate protection while allowing optimal mobility. By tailoring the design of lab coats to specific hazards, individuals can work safely and effectively in their respective environments.

Who Should Wear Lab Coats?

When it comes to ensuring safety in the workplace, lab coats are an absolute necessity for professionals frequently exposed to various health hazards, such as biohazards, radiation, viruses, bacteria, and other forms of contamination.

These professionals include medical personnel, such as nursing and medical students, nurses, doctors, nurse practitioners, and other specialists like electronic technicians, microbiologists, pharmacists, and veterinarians.

The purpose of wearing lab coats is to provide a protective barrier that shields these professionals from hazardous substances and keeps their clothing clean and free from stains or damage.

Without lab coats, these professionals would be at a higher risk of contracting illnesses or facing other health complications from exposure to dangerous substances.

Where To Buy a Lab Coat

When buying a lab coat, you have several options. Online healthcare and science stores and specialty sites like Scrubs & Beyond, Work ‘N Gear, and Walgreens sell lab coats. These sites make it easy to find lab coats that meet your needs.

Physical stores have fewer choices than online shops due to their physical limitations. As a result, contact a physical store to ensure availability before visiting them to ensure they have the specific lab coat you need if you prefer using this method to purchase a coat.

Alternatively, you can easily find online and local retailers that offer additional lab coats, as they can source products from various manufacturers and suppliers.

Depending on your healthcare facility or school, you may acquire additional suggestions regarding places to purchase a lab coat. They may also offer discounted pricing if they have a relationship with the healthcare facility or school.

Regardless, ensuring that the lab coat aligns with the facility’s clothing guidelines for safety and professionalism is crucial. You can ask human resources for guidance if you are still deciding which design to choose.

Ultimately, the level of protection provided by lab coats differs depending on factors such as fabric composition, construction, length, thickness, and chemical properties.

Therefore, verifying that you purchase a design appropriate for the work you will be performing is vital. Considering the previously mentioned factors will help you make an informed decision when selecting a lab coat.

How Much Do Lab Coats Cost?

Lab coats come in different styles, brands, and materials, which significantly affect their prices. Personalized tailoring and custom name tag features for lab coats also play a crucial role in the final cost. While regular lab coats range from $20 to $60, custom-tailored lab coats can set you back anywhere from $100 to $300. However, most lab coats are generally available for under $60.

It’s worth mentioning that the price of a lab coat goes up with premium fabrics and fancier designs. Some of the high-end features of lab coats include adjustable belts, tablet pockets, custom embroidery, stylized hemming, and other luxurious details.

Tailored lab coats are usually the most expensive option, as they require individual measurements and customization for the user’s size. In addition, tailored lab coats come with personally requested details and options.

Despite the cost, investing in a well-designed lab coat with premium materials is worth it, as it can last for a long time if appropriately cared for.

What About Disposable Lab Coats?

Some facilities and companies offer disposable lab coats as a protective measure that can be worn and then either recycled or disposed of. These lab coats are often purchased in bundles due to their low cost and wide distribution.

While they do offer essential protection, they are typically only recommended for those who are not working in particularly hazardous/dangerous environments.

Instead, these lab coats offer a fundamental safeguard against potential dangers and prevent the wearer’s clothes from being exposed to bacteria, stains, and contamination.

In extremely dangerous environments, a facility may provide highly industrial protective clothing and biohazard gear that fully covers and shields the wearer from harmful biohazards.

Some lab coats may be disposable, but their affordability and wide availability make them perfect for situations where protective clothing is necessary. This is especially true for individuals or groups working in semi-hazardous environments who do not own lab coats.

Furthermore, disposable lab coats offer crucial protection for clothing against hazardous substances like bacteria, chemicals, and debris that can cause contamination, staining, or other undesirable results.