Hospital Code Meanings, Definitions & Explanations

Medical professionals use hospital codes to communicate emergencies and circumstances requiring an immediate response.

Some hospital codes report patient behavior, violence, or medical emergencies, while others correlate to disasters, hazards, and weather events.

This article discusses hospital code variations, meanings, and differences to provide an informative resource.

These codes differ depending on the healthcare center’s particular facility or state.

Codes vary even more in different countries; some have entirely different meanings.

As a result, the hospital codes mentioned here change based on the medical facility and location.

What Do Hospital Codes Mean?

The most common hospital codes with a few variations include blue, red, and black.

Other codes vary more regularly from location to location.

This is because hospitals determine what specific color codes mean.

As a result, there isn’t a universal hospital code system to provide facilities with the same code definitions and applications.

The following section covers the significance of different codes and possible variations to help you understand their meaning better.

Code Blue

Code blue relates to medical emergencies like cardiac arrest or respiratory obstruction.

It’s utilized by hospital staff if a patient experiences a life-threatening health situation or is in urgent danger.

Supporting staff and healthcare specialists arrive promptly to provide immediate care and stabilize the patient’s condition during a code blue call.

Fortunately, a code blue is relatively universal, and the meaning is less likely to vary between healthcare facilities, so it’s better known.

Code Red

Code red correlates to a possible fire in a hospital/healthcare setting when a staff member, patient, or visitor perceives a fire emergency.

Hospital staff may also call a code red if the direct source (fire) isn’t visible when observing smoke or fumes.

However, medical staff initiates a code red to alert other hospital staff, visitors, and patients.

Some staff evacuates patients to safety while others assess burns, smoke inhalation, and other injuries/medical concerns if necessary.

Importantly, code red shares a similar meaning among many hospitals and healthcare environments, so it’s relatively understood.

Code Black

A code black usually indicates a bomb threat or suspicious package in most hospitals.

Accordingly, this code is relatively standard among healthcare facilities making it understandable for most staff regardless of location.

Hospitals use code black in internal and external circumstances.

For instance, if staff or police identify a possible bomb on facility grounds or nearby locations outside the hospital.

Essentially, code black is employed if a potential bomb could cause environmental, infrastructural, or bodily harm.

Code Silver

Code silver refers to an active shooter or hostage situation in a hospital setting.

It’s also employed when a patient wields a lethal weapon or the hospital conducts a lockdown to prevent an escape.

The purpose of code silver is to provide medical staff with a planned response to ensure workers, patients, and visitors remain safe.

Moreover, it allows law enforcement to manage the situation effectively and efficiently.

Code Orange

Code orange indicates hazardous materials or spills in most hospital environments.

However, some locations define code orange as a mass casualty or external disaster event.

Its meaning varies depending on the healthcare setting, but it most commonly implies hazardous materials.

The purpose of code orange in most medical settings is to inform the hospital staff a particular area requires decontamination.

It allows medical staff to clear the area, manage the contamination and contact the appropriate team to handle the hazardous materials/spills if needed.

Code Yellow

Code yellow indicates a pending emergency or external disaster.

Pending emergencies result from multi-trauma situations, natural catastrophes, severe accidents/weather, or large-scale events.

The purpose of code yellow is to prepare hospital staff for emergencies and a potential influx of patients resulting from an emergency or external disaster.

Code Pink/Purple

Code pink/purple indicates an infant or child abduction in a hospital setting.

This code is relatively universal and often pertains to infants under 12 months suspected or confirmed missing.

Occasionally, code pink alerts the rapid response team of pediatric/neonatal cardiac arrest in the NICU and labor and delivery departments.

However, infant abduction is the most prevalent application for code pink.

The purpose of code pink is to alert hospital staff to look for a potential missing child and lockdown the facility if needed.

It enables medical professionals to form a quick response and minimize the risk of a missing child leaving the hospital unexpectedly.

Code Green

Code green indicates an emergency activation.

Hospital staff, visitors, and patients must evacuate to another hospital area or leave the facility during a code green.

Code green aims to provide hospital staff with the appropriate fast response to ensure workers, patients, and visitor safety.

Code Gray

A code gray indicates different things depending on the healthcare facility and location.

For instance, code gray means a person/patient is aggressive, abusive, violent, or exhibiting violent behaviors in various hospitals.

It also indicates criminal activities or a missing person in other healthcare locations.

However, code gray indicates utilities/infrastructure loss in some hospitals in Canada.

As a result, the meaning of code gray varies significantly depending on the location and healthcare facility.

Code Brown

Code brown has several meanings depending on the healthcare facility.

For example, it indicates severe weather or an external disaster to hospital staff in some hospitals.

Code brown is most well-known for this particular meaning.

It allows medical teams to prepare appropriately for bad weather, disasters, and a potential influx of patients.

Alternatively, it indicates hazardous materials in some healthcare settings.

It also informs staff of a missing adult patient.

Finally, nurses use code brown in non-emergency situations to indicate a patient’s bowel movement.

However, it’s more for entertainment than an actual emergency code and is not a real hospital code.

Code White

Code white almost universally indicates a violent or combative person in a healthcare setting.

However, code white indicates some NICU units have a neonatal/pediatric emergency.

The general purpose of code white is to inform hospital staff of the appropriate response required to handle violent people/situations best.

It also allows law enforcement to act more effectively and efficiently due to the hospital’s response.

Code Violet

Code violet indicates a violent or combative individual.

According to, code violet is Nationwide Children’s response to violent and comparative persons.

The violent or combative person can be a patient, parent, family member, or coworker.

The response aims to provide appropriate steps to ensure self-safety and the safety of other individuals in violent situations.

Code Aqua

Code aqua indicates an uncontrollable flood that jeopardizes physical or environmental well-being.

That said, hospitals and staff members haven’t universally adopted code aqua. Accordingly, it’s a niche use case in healthcare facilities.

A Lack of Universal Hospital Codes

Hospital codes provide medical staff with instant awareness of emergencies requiring an immediate response.

As a result, hospital workers quickly assess emergencies and react appropriately based on the code given.

It ensures medical personnel, patients, and visitors have the best chance to remain safe and eliminate/minimize the emergency if possible.

Unfortunately, many hospital codes do not have a universal meaning/system.

Sometimes, hospital code meanings vary between different countries but remain relatively uniform within a particular country.

In other cases, hospital codes diverge significantly in various regions or states of a single country.

The lack of a unified hospital code system causes confusion between hospitals and healthcare facilities.

Medical personnel has more difficulty responding appropriately to emergencies in different locations.

For example, travel nurses must learn hospital code variances when working in different states to respond appropriately to emergencies.

Medical personnel permanently relocating to other areas must also understand local hospital codes to avoid incorrect responses.

Introducing a universal hospital code system would eliminate confusion and create a cohesive response for healthcare professionals.

It would allow medical personnel to remain highly effective and coordinated regardless of location.

It also simplifies the education process by standardizing hospital codes throughout the nation/globe.

With that said, counties such as Canada and England utilize a nationally standardized set of emergency hospital codes.

Therefore, medical professionals respond more effectively regardless of where they work in those countries.

How Hospitals Communicate Codes

Hospitals use color codes to communicate with staff regarding emergencies and events requiring immediate attention.

Hospitals utilize various warning systems and technologies to communicate with hospital staff.

It includes intercoms, mobile-first digital platforms (smartphones, apple watch, etc.), pagers, emergency switches/buttons, voicemail, and electronic email.

Depending on the severity of the hospital code, the systems utilized vary.

However, intercoms, emergency switches/buttons, and mobile-first digital platforms provide immediate and effective communication for hospital staff.

The ability to communicate emergencies and events quickly to hospital personnel expands as healthcare communication technology advances.

Healthcare communication technology also allows medical personnel to provide police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with accurate information more quickly.

As a result, they can react more swiftly and effectively during emergencies, which reduces injuries, death, and infrastructure loss.