What is a Family Nurse Practitioner?

A family nurse practitioner (FNP) has extensive post-graduate education and clinical training in family practice.

These professionals possess a Masters of Science in Nursing or Doctorate of Nursing Practice degree and board certification.

As a result, they possess expertise beyond that of a general registered nurse and have an extended scope of practice.

Family nurse practitioners are advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) who focus on primary care.

Unlike general registered nurses, FNPs can diagnose and treat patients with illnesses and injuries.

The services of family nurse practitioners help patients with a broad range of medical ailments.

It includes minor, acute, and chronic medical conditions within their scope of practice.

In addition, some FNPs open clinics and act as primary care providers.

It allows them to bring their expertise to underserved areas needing essential medical care.

That said, a family nurse practitioner’s scope of practice varies depending on their state.

Those in full-practice states have more medical independence than those in reduced or restricted practice states.

What Do Family Nurse Practitioners Do?

Family nurse practitioners center on disease prevention, screening, and management, including acute and chronic diseases.

They’re primarily responsible for educating patients about good health practices and encouraging positive health.

Family nurse practitioners treat patients of all ages within a family setting.

As a result, families can spend years working with the same nurse practitioner.

During patient encounters, family nurse practitioners provide a range of medical services.

It includes diagnosing and treating mental and physical ailments /illnesses, reviewing medical histories, and writing prescriptions.

They also perform x-rays, physical exams, and screenings and prescribe treatment plans/rehabilitation programs.

FNPs spend time researching and studying the latest medical practices to maintain their knowledge.

It allows them to provide the latest and greatest care to their clients and patients.

Here’s a condensed list of daily responsibilities, tasks, and duties family nurse practitioners perform.

Family Nurse Practitioner Responsibilities:

  • Prescribe medications
  • Perform physical therapy
  • Conduct examinations
  • Develop and administer treatment plans
  • Oversee registered nurses
  • Recommend patients to specialists
  • Diagnose and treat conditions
  • Open and own healthcare clinics
  • Act as primary care providers

The previous list summarizes the duties most FNPs perform regularly.

However, a Family nurse practitioner’s responsibilities and scope of practice vary depending on the state and employer.

For instance, nurse practices in full-practice states may work independently without a physician’s oversight.

Contrarily, an FNP in a limited or restricted practice state may need a physician to oversee/write off particular procedures.

Where Do Family Nurse Practitioners Work?

Family nurse practitioners work in various settings supporting patients from different backgrounds and age groups.

It includes community clinics, doctor offices, schools, healthcare agencies, hospitals, and government agencies.

Some family nurse practitioners also open private practices to provide direct primary care to local patients.

Working as independent healthcare providers allows them to deliver essential care to people in underserved areas.

Family Nurse Practitioner Salary

According to Salary.com, family nurse practitioners in the United States earn around $115,600 annually on average.

With that said, an FNPs salary varies greatly depending on their state.

For instance, New York, N.Y. family nurse practitioners earn approximately $139,070 annually.

Those in Charlotte, N.C., earn closer to $113,240 yearly.

There are numerous reasons for the discrepancy in salary.

Firstly, states like New York have a high cost of living.

As a result, nurse practitioners in that state need to make a higher salary to cover taxes and other expenses.

FNPs in New York also sees many patients, especially in metropolitan areas.

Consequently, healthcare departments and independent practices make more money due to the higher patient flow.

It’s important to point out that the higher salary doesn’t always translate to more money after expenses considering expenses.

State tax, sales tax, and the cost of goods impact how much a family nurse practitioner makes.

Please remember that these are just salary estimates and may not include bonuses, incentives, and overtime.

FNPs working more hours and receiving incentives may earn more than the average family nurse practitioner.

Career Outlook

There are numerous opportunities for nurse practitioners in primary and independent care roles.

It’s due to the high demand for healthcare experts to accommodate a growing needs of an aging and unhealthy population.

In addition, the high cost of medical care makes it difficult for many individuals and families to pay for expensive medical care.

Nurse practitioners help reduce the cost of medical care by providing patients with more options for medical treatment.

Advanced practice registered nurses will experience a 45% increase in demand between 2020 and 2030.

As a result, nurses who pursue careers as FNPs have numerous options for career advancement and work autonomy.

Essential FNP Skills

There are many skills family nurse practitioners must master to succeed in their careers.

For instance, they must be great communicators, highly analytical, knowledgeable in their domain, leadership-focused, and excellent time managers.

The following section breaks down some of the skills necessary to be a top-level FNP.


Communication is a necessary skill in all levels of medical care.

However, it’s especially vital for FNPs because they’re responsible for making decisions impacting their patients’ health.

A family nurse practitioner also acts as a primary care provider for some patients.

As a result, they may lead specific medical teams and need effective communication to ensure patients receive proper procedures, treatments, and interventions.

Any mistakes in communication can make it difficult for team members to provide the necessary medical care.

Analytical Skills

FNPs assess, diagnose and treat patient conditions and develop interventions to manage them.

Therefore, they must have excellent analytical skills to diagnose patients properly, prescribe medications and develop treatment plans.

Healthcare is a highly analytical field requiring careful thought, data analysis, hypothesis, and problem-solving to treat patients effectively.

The most effective FNPs can analyze and interpret complex medical data to provide adequate healthcare solutions.

Core Competencies

A family nurse practitioner’s core competencies center on their area of expertise.

FNPs must receive regular education, research, and training to remain current on the latest medical practices.

They must also maintain a solid foundation of knowledge within their distinct discipline because healthcare is ever-changing.

Those who don’t take continuing education make more medical errors and avoidable mistakes that impact their patient’s well-being.


Leadership is vital for FNPs because they often supervise other medical professionals.

Excellent communication and leadership skills ensure everyone understands their roles and performs their best.

Notably, healthcare workers are less likely to make mistakes and are more efficient at conducting their jobs.

It also ensures patients receive appropriate and timely care, improving patient and employee morale.

Time Management Skills

Healthcare requires exceptional time management due to patient care needs and busy work settings.

Medical professionals unable to manage their time effectively put their coworkers and patients at risk.

It causes stress among healthcare staff, negatively impacts patient care times, and raises possibilities for medical errors.

Effective time management allows for better prioritization, delegation, problem-solving, and decision-making.

It keeps the medical staff focused and timely on essential tasks to complete work with few mistakes and less frustration.

How to Become a Family Nurse Practitioner

Becoming a family nurse practitioner is relatively straightforward but requires dedication and time.

The first step for most people is to obtain a GED or diploma to qualify for college entrance.

You’ll then need to complete the required nursing school prerequisite courses and maintain an acceptable college GPA.

The prerequisite requirements and GPA score needed to enter the nursing program vary depending on the school.

After completing the necessary prerequisites, you may apply to an accredited nursing program.

Some students apply to several nursing school programs to obtain the best chances of getting accepted.

Depending on the university, GPA requirements, and seating availability, getting into nursing school can be challenging.

You’ll spend four years studying nursing to earn your Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree (BSN).

Before obtaining your license, you must complete a final NCLEX-RN exam.

It tests your knowledge in various areas of nursing to ensure you’re prepared to provide adequate patient care.

Gaining Work Experience

Once you’ve obtained your licensure, you can begin working as a registered nurse.

It’s important to gear your training towards family care since most MSN/DNP programs look for experienced registered nurses.

With that said, there are no work requirements to apply for an MSN or DNP program.

You can go directly from obtaining your BSN to pursuing an MSN or DNP degree.

Your best option is to contact a school offering an MSN/DNP program to understand their requirements and expectations.

Ask what they look for when deciding whether to accept a registered nurse into their program.

Once you’ve met the school’s requirements, you can apply for the MSN-FNP program.

The family nurse practitioner program focuses on providing medical care to individuals within a family setting.

The program takes approximately 15 – 24 months to complete for full-time students.

Those who pursue the program part-time will require additional time to complete the program.

Students must also gain field experience and work for several hundred hours under the supervision of an accredited FNP.

It allows them to learn the ins and outs of their domain before earning their degree and practicing as an FNP.